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Arabian Nights Aparate

Arabian Nights Aparate

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Anyone who begs to differ, bring it on. Women were reading and writing a hell of a lot earlier in Islam than in Anglo Christianity, and appealing to historical stereotypes is a poor excuse indeed.

View all 29 comments. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English-language edition As I say in my review , I wanted to write a parody of this wonderful book but was forced to admit defeat.

Burton is too damn clever for a good parody to be possible. During my preliminary negotiations, I had however received a remarkable offer from Alfonso.

A Burton parody without political incorrectness is unthinkable, and Alfonso bravely put himself forward to play the role of an evil blackamoor of hideous appearance.

It seems wrong that Alfonso's selfless devotion to literature should go unrew As I say in my review , I wanted to write a parody of this wonderful book but was forced to admit defeat.

It seems wrong that Alfonso's selfless devotion to literature should go unrewarded. I am therefore proud to present: A Fragment of the Tale of Rashid al-Bhattan and al-Fonso the Maghrabi Now there dwelt not far from the Caliph's court another foreigner, a Darwaysh from the Maghrib named al-Fonso, a powerful magician and geomancer; from his earliest age upwards he had been addicted to witchcraft and had studied and practiced every manner of occult science, for which unholy lore the city of Africa is notorious.

And the Maghrabi possessed a seal ring, a signet that once had graced the hand of Solomon Davids-son; yet so woven about with secret spells and enchantments was it, that the Maghrabi could not avail himself of its familiar, for all his arts.

But by his gramarye, the Maghrabi learned how it stood with Rashid, and he thought himself a scheme whereby he might bend the ring to his will.

And one day, as Rashid left the Caliph's court, the Maghribi thrust himself in Rashid's way; and addressing him, he asked if he would learn the infallible method to win the favour of any woman, even the highest and most beautiful.

The Maghrabi was a hideous blackamoor, ill-favoured and foul with grease and grime, and Rashid laughed to hear his words, believing that he spoke in jest.

But the Maghrabi spoke kindly to Rashid and flattered him and used all his charms to put him at his ease; and presently he took forth the ring and instructed him in its use, telling him that he had but to rub it to gain aught that he might want, but that only one of the Isles of the Setting Sun might thus constrain the Spirit of the Ring; and Rashid still doubting, the Maghrabi put the ring on Rashid's finger and told him to rub it.

Rashid did as the Maghrabi bade; and instantly before him appeared a Marid. He trembled at the terrible sight; but, hearing the Slave of the Ring say, "Ask whatso thou wantest, verily, I am thy thrall, seeing that the signet of my lord be upon thy finger", he took courage.

She glanced with displeasure on the Maghrabi; but Rashid, heeding the magician's rede, rubbed the ring and commanded the Marid.

View all 31 comments. Apr 11, Sidharth Vardhan rated it it was amazing Shelves: A Story to Save a Live The beauty of the stories and the poetry of the thought that most destructive demons can be tamed back with a few stories was fascinating to me even when I first saw the serialized version on tv.

This book has made Scherzade my favorite superhero — superhero was the word we use for one A Story to Save a Live The beauty of the stories and the poetry of the thought that most destructive demons can be tamed back with a few stories was fascinating to me even when I first saw the serialized version on tv.

What Scherzade had to fight was real, and after centuries of her single victory continues unfortunately to remain real — lack of trust among sexes.

Sheriyar is misogyny humanized. The frame story is simple. The parrot would say mynah is sure to cheat him and would back that prediction with a story where a woman cheated on her lover.

Mynah, in her turn, would say it is parrot who is sure to cheat her and will back that up with a story of how some man cheated on his lover.

Then parrot would come back with another story — and this exchange of accusations will go on and on. Sheriyar is the result of this mistrust among sexes.

In a short time, he comes across three cases of adulatory committed by three women, including one by his own wife, and generalizes to the whole of the fair sex.

A person who is suffering because he thinks he is cheated can be quite suggestible Othello. And a generalization can be temting.

Sheriyar has developed this fear after being cheated his wife. And Sherzade is the beauty who tamed this beast. She did this — she fought away her death - the literal sword of her own father a few hours away from being forced to cut her head; with armor of a pleasant smile on her lips and the weapon of story on her tongue.

And she does that. For a thousand and one nights. Same goes for a prejudiced person - prejudice is by very definition refusal to reconsider the already reached false conclusions.

Now imagine prejudiced tyrants. Scherzade knew this well enough. Instead, she used her stories to make king see the truth. As good as the stories are in themselves, they carry a trend.

Then you come across the story of a king, suffering from misfortune caused by an adulterous wife — a king not unlike Scheriyar, may be Scheherazade is simply saying what king would love to hear … but look carefully, and you will notice that the villain wife suddenly gets a voice.

Even though she was beheaded, the wife in the story did get a say — love of an adultress woman is love still.

You see what Scherzade did. Move a little ahead and roles are reversed. Her husband is made to repent in the end. So now you see the trend.

There is soon a story in which a king Haroon is at fault — making people suffer with his tyrannies … but he is quick to repent upon realizing the mistake — and even makes up for the loss of these people.

Did you get you lesson, Sheriyar? And so it goes on. One story actually involved a prince who has formed a bad opinion regarding all women kind from all the mischief caused by them that he read about in his books.

His mother, the queen asked him to think about all the tyrant kings that the world has and what they have done to the women over centuries I can imagine Scheherazade having her tongue in her cheek when she must have narrated the scene Later on, Scheherazade diverts to stories about how married women have fun at the expense of their wanna-be-lovers.

The last story is that of a woman — Ulysses and Penlope combined into one woman, who goes out on a difficult journey while maintaining her loyality to her husband against all the suitors.

Gradually, the stories change to afford a better position for women and while also reminding the king that even King can make mistakes — and how much more troublesome are their mistakes than that of an ordinary person.

There are a few stories e. Sindbad where the issue of friction between sexes is not raised but the general trend is too good to miss.

In fact, very first few pages you find a remark by a woman other than Scherzade about futility of keeping women under lock.

While we are talking about fighting prejudice — a good reason for people to read it to observe how lightly the veil is used by women.

Women, who wear vile while being out, are shown at liberty and often chose to show their face to whoever they wish to. Not only that, there are a lot of night parties and extra-marital kissing.

Yes, there are strict and overprotective fathers but I mean that goes everywhere. Then in at least one place, there is a remark on regarding how the judges are too strict regarding how women should behave.

It is surprising these same judges had nothing to say about drinking wine or when their king had more than four wives. Moreover, there seems to be no way men can cheat their wives - men are permitted marry multiple times and can have sex with slaves under Islam like other religions but women are not - this means men can not cheat on their wives.

Celebrating the art of Storytelliing There are a number of techniques used by the Scheherazade — cliff hangings, repetitive characters king Haroon and his wife, Zobeida story-within-story at times story-within-story-within-story-within-story etc.

One time Scheherazade forgets a part of narrative and have to retreat to cover that part. Cliff-hangings though were never that important and never that close to being figurative.

Here they are saving lives — the stakes on which Scherzade bargains to get another day of life. Regarding the story-within-story thing, you may claim that too many of the stories are told by characters trying to save lives.

But look at Scheherazade, the original story teller. And it is the most excellent part — that story-teller and the listener are both part of the story; you get most out of it when you think about how their minds are involved in and are affected by the stories.

Just imagine the thoughts that Sheriyar would carry in his mind at the end of each story. There is a criticism that some of stories are too similar — but you see it is because of the central theme.

And I mean how much diversity you can wish for? There are love stories —both comedies and tragedies, stories of adventures, stories of genies, humorous stories especially the one about tailor , criminal stories, stories of suddenly found treasures.

There is one short story about the three brothers who can reason backwards — a little like Sherlock Holmes. Given its time, the stories show remarkable diversity.

In one weird story, a woman disguised as her own husband marries another woman. Latter this second woman marries husband of first. Antisemitism, Racism and Body Shaming From beautiful to ugly There is a lot of much more than you can imagine antisemitism, racism and body shaming specially in first or so pages, especially for a book trying to fight prejudice.

All wicked wizards are African, Jew, Worshiper of fire or Hindu. All cheating merchants are Jews. The filthy tradition of eunuchs was not limited to Arabia though.

Some female slaves do seem to gain independence and are lawfully married - but that is a fairy tale sort of thing. The terrible treatment of a hunch-back in particular made me stop reading it for a month.

I just took away six stars from my rating. It was already twenty-nine stars. Some advice if you chose to live in medieval Persia view spoiler [ 1.

The most dangerous job is that Vizir — better be a slave than a vizir. Since king may take you along on a expedition mostly in disguise ; find random people or dead bodies and want you to discover the truth behind them within three, thirty or forty days; failing which your head is likely to be beheaded.

If a married woman seems to be answering your requests to take you as lover, than she is just kidding and is probably going to get you a lot of trouble.

If you suddenly found yourself in room of some person of opposite sex, than it is probably doing of some Jinn and Pari. Soon you will found yourself in love with other person but will forget to ask where the hell you are.

Then early morning, you shall be thrown back to your place. And after a lot of suffering shall found your lover again.

Have a story to tell, in case you get in trouble with king or a Jinn. If two darveshes wants admittance to your house than it is probably king and his ministers, specially there are multiple sisters in the house.

Admit him and tell him something strange. For, he would then make you rich. You are most likely to be married to the king, if you are youngest of three sisters.

Youngest of brothers are lucky too. Also in case of princes, it helps your future prospects greatly if your mother was deserted by king.

If you are young, poor and handsome man, than you will soon be wealthy — it just follows. If you are are a beautiful woman, than your veil is liable to flown away by wind in front of some man who will instantly fall in love with you.

Sea journeys are especially dangerous if you are single or your spouse is lost. And above all, If you found an old lamp, to rub it.

Several friends have asked me to discuss the differences between the editions, so I thought I'd present a four-way comparison and then talk about which version is best for which audience.

For the purposes of the four-way comparison, I will draw text from the opening tale of the two kingly The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night Vol.

For the purposes of the four-way comparison, I will draw text from the opening tale of the two kingly brothers in order to highlight how each popular version handles "adult" content and racial content.

When they came to the pool of a fountain they all undressed and mingled one with another. Suddenly, on the King's wife crying: At this signal, all the other men slaves did the same with the women and they continued thus a long while, not ceasing their kisses and embraces and goings in and the like until the approach of dawn.

He shut himself up in his apartment, and sat down at a window that looked into the garden. Suddenly a secret gate of the palace opened, and there came out of it twenty women, in the midst of whom walked the Sultaness.

The persons who accompanied the Sultaness threw off their veils and long robes, and Shahzenan was greatly surprised when he saw that ten of them were black slaves, each of whom chose a female companion.

The Sultaness clapped her hands, and called: It was therefore with the deepest shame and sorrow that he accidentally discovered, after several years, that she had deceived him completely, and her whole conduct turned out to have been so bad, that he felt himself obliged to carry out the law of the land, and order the grand-vizir to put her to death.

They walked under the very lattice and advanced a little way into the garden till they came to a jetting fountain amiddlemost a great basin of water; then they stripped off their clothes and behold, ten of them were women, concubines of the King, and the other ten were white slaves.

Then they all paired off, each with each: He walked boldly up to her and threw his arms round her neck while she embraced him as warmly; then he bussed her and winding his legs round hers, as a button loop clasps a button, he threw her and enjoyed her.

The editor and translator have deliberately worked the translation to be as readable to the English eye as possible, even making judicious choices about where to refrain from using diacritical points single quote sound points, as in 'ain in order to ease the reading experience.

They've made a concerted effort to retain the adult content without being lewd, the racial content without descending into offensive caricature, the poetic content without overwhelming the reader, and the entire content without condensing the text and losing material.

For children, however, the superior volume is probably the Muhsin al-Musawi edition. This edition is condensed, but the editing was done with great care to maintain story structure and content.

The adult content has been toned down considerably, the racial content has been handled tactfully, the extra songs and poems have been almost entirely removed, and there are interesting and attractive pictures in the electronic edition.

My biggest complain here is that the adult content has been excised to a degree that almost brings unfortunate implications: Still, if you want a sanitized version of the tales, the al-Musawi edition is almost certainly the way to go.

I do not recommend the Lang edition. Lang's fairy tale collections, such as the color fairy tale books, are usually a delight, but his Arabian Nights edition is thin on content and heavily paraphrased.

The stories are gutted to remove the adult content and shorten the tale length for children, but in many cases the changes are not carefully glossed over, and huge plot holes and unresolved threads are left dangling.

I've never met a Lang reader who didn't ask me what was going on in one tale or other because the translation is so poorly rendered.

Neither do I recommend the Burton version. If anything, the Burton version has the exact opposite problems as the Lang version: Burton's edition lengthens the stories with extensively lewd descriptions and offensive racial imagery.

The edition was also rendered in the s, and the language within has not aged well -- there are all lot of "forsooth"s and "verily"s that bog down the reading.

If you're interested in a historical analysis of how these tales have been rendered over the years, by all means become familiar with the Burton version, but if you're just looking for light bedtime reading, give the Burton edition a pass.

I hope that this comparison will be helpful. Jul 18, K. Oh, the wonders of literature! While reading this book I could not help but sing the songs or hum the tunes associated with the tales: Only my father loved reading books and we had very few compared to what I have now classics and contemporary books at home.

My parents did not read to me when I was young. Those are the reasons why Oh, the wonders of literature! Those are the reasons why I missed all those children's books.

So, reading these Tales from Nights a. You see, the story of Aladdin and the Magic Lamp , although I read it just now, is so popular that we must all have seen it in movies, read in local adaptations as individual children's books or comics or even seen in TV ads.

However, if you compare the original story to the Disney-produced movie, the carpet in the book does not fly.

Rather, it just covers the distance between the entrance of the King's palace and Alladin's pavilion so that the princess, Lady Badar Al-Budur maybe the equivalent of Princess Jasmine will not walk on mud.

The story is fantastic. I admire how the magician thinks: I hate Alladin before he got rich particularly on his laziness and how he treats his old mother.

She marches like a soldier and with eyes wide and scary. Who would not remember ourselves shouting: Then expecting our mom or playmate to open it for us?

Who says that this book treats women badly? In this tale, the maid Morgiana is so smart that she saves his master's Ali Baba life several times.

I remember the tune and I thought that it is similar to "Popeye the Sailor Man" or maybe as catchy as that. Well, the tale of Sinbad the Sailor is a short one and it talks about is mistake of killing his falcon.

It is one of those tales inside another tale. The king and his brother have philandering wives who they have killed so the King does not want to have a wife anymore so he orders his vizier assistant to bring young pretty girls from the village and after one night of sex, the king orders his soldiers to kill the girl.

To survive, the wise Scheherazade tells the tales, part-by-part. The king, so eager to know what comes next, decides not to kill her until all the tales are told.

I will not tell you if she gets eventually killed in the end. Aug 21, Ali added it. This used to be a comment on my not-yet-review of the first volume of the Lyons translation of the Nights, but I thought it would be more helpful if it was a review.

I've expanded on some of my earlier comments and tried to be more critical than "I like this one" or "this one seems odd", which was all I had time to write at the time I posted the comment.

This is restr [As I have not read the Nights yet, this is not a commentary on them, but rather a comparison of the many translations available.

This is restricted to editions I have, as well as those of the Amazon review mentioned below, but I will put other editions into the review if they're submitted in the comments.

As many readers of foreign literature will tell you, trranslation can drastically affect your enjoyment of a book. There have been a couple of times when I have disliked something until I read it in a new translation, as with Camus' the Stranger.

My reaction to the original translation by Stewart Gilbert was lukewarm. I didn't dislike it, but I felt that something was missing which didn't allow me to hear his authorial voice.

Reading the Matthew Ward translation restored that something, and allowed me to enjoy the novel more thoroughly. Nowhere is this truer than the classic Arabian Nights.

There are many, many translations, both complete and partial, all of which are written in disparate styles and which all handle the more unsavory elements in different ways, and choosing one can be daunting.

TO that end, I have written commentary for the passages of eight different translations, and have tried to assess them in a manner which lays out the advantages and disadvantages of each.

I got this idea from an Amazon review where someone typed out the opening passage from the first story, which contains both sexual and racial content, to see how four different translators handled them.

I'll incorperate both her and my translations. The first four are hers though in the case of the Burton, I also own it , and the rest are mine.

Now there were in the King's palace certain windows that looked on to the garden, and, as King Shahzaman leaned there and looked out, the door of the palace opened and twenty women slaves with twenty men slaves came from it; and the wife of the King, his brother, was among them and walked there in all her bright beauty.

I like the sound of it. It's readable, the sexual and racial content is handled very well, however it's not originally translated from the Arabic, but from the French, and has been criticised for inaccuracy by purists.

Mardrus took many liberties with the texts, including the addition of extra tales from a supposed newly discovered secret manuscript that no one actually saw, and the expansion of sexual material.

Not everyone will care, I don't think I'll even care once I've read a translation originally from the Arabic, because it really is a lot of fun to read, but it's worth knowing.

One day, Shahriar had started on a great hunting match, about two days' journey from his capital; but Shahzenan, pleading ill health, was left behind.

Seems fairly competant, but the translator removes all hint of sexual indiscretion, which means that any reaction from the man watching will seem like an overreaction if all they're doing is conversing.

Yet I would recommend this version for children, because though it is sanitised, it does not go nearly to the same lengths as Now the Sultan Schahriar had a wife whom he loved more than all the world, and his greatest happiness was to surround her with splendour, and to give her the finest dresses and the most beautiful jewels.

Not recommended, at all. As you can see, it's completely different from any translation we've previously looked at, makes use of heavy paraphrasing, and results in the story being made incoherent, maybe even to the children for whom it was intended.

Sir Richard Burton this is an interesting one: Thereupon Shah Zaman drew back from the window, but he kept the bevy in sight espying them from a place whence he could not be espied.

I would ignore Burton's version outright, if not for the fact that it does have certain advantages.

Yes, it is racist, turning Saeed into an almost cartoonish figure because of the words used to describe him and the sexual act. Burton blatantly inserts his own materials into the text at will, something I can tell even not having any knowledge of the Arabic originals.

The other translators do a little of this too, but not as much as Burton. Yet I have read other parts of these tales in his translation, and I would say that they are worth at least a quick glance because of the fascinating and esoteric quality of his prose.

In reading the Burton, you almost have to learn a new way of reading, because Burton never met an obscure word or phrase he didn't like, and he freely inserted them into the Nights.

He would sometimes make up words when the ones available to him didn't suit the story. His energy and sense of diction is at many points amazing, and even with the racism, I found myself beguiled while reading him.

Also, if you can't be bothered spending money for the Lyons translation, which is what I recommend below, his versions can be found for free online.

Now there were in King Shahzeman's apartments lattice-windows overlooking his brother's garden, and as the former was sitting looking on the garden, behold a gate of the palace opened, and out came twenty damsels and twenty black slaves, and among them his brother's wife, who was wonderfully fair and beautiful.

They all came up to a fountain, where the girls and slaves took off their clothes and sat down together. Then the queen called out, "O Mesoud!

Then he lay with her, and on likewise did the other slaves with the girls. And they ceased not from kissing and clipping and cricketing and carousing until the day began to wane.

This was the basis for the Burton translation [some even criticised Burton for plagiarism, though he claimed he got permission from Payne to reuse passages].

The writing is a little flowery, in typical Victorian style, but isn't too bad otherwise. Payne's accomplishment here is hard to overstate.

He taught himself Arabic, and using this knowledge, translated the first and one of the most complete versions of the Arabian Nights we now have.

It's just too bad he only produced five hundred copies, which left Richard Burton's translation to take over and be the more influential of the two.

Jonathan Scott the so-called Aldine Edition: While he was thus absorbed in grief, a circumstance occurred which attracted the whole of his attention.

A secret gate of the sultan's palace suddenly opened, and there came out of it twenty women, in the midst of whom walked the sultaness, who was easily distinguished from the rest by her majestic air.

This princess thinking that the king of Tartary was gone a-hunting with his brother the sultan, came with her retinue near the windows of his apartment.

For the prince had so placed himself that he could see all that passed in the garden without being perceived himself.

He observed, that the persons who accompanied the sultaness threw off their veils and long robes, that they might be more at their ease, but he was greatly surprised to find that ten of them were black men, and that each of these took his mistress.

The sultaness, on her part, was not long without her gallant. She clapped her hands, and called "Masoud, Masoud," and immediately a black descended from a tree, and ran towards her with great speed.

Modesty will not allow, nor is it it necessary, to relate what passed between the blacks and the ladies. It is sufficient to say, that Shaw-zummaun saw enough to convince him, that his brother was as much to be pitied as himself.

This amorous company continued together till midnight, and having bathed together in a great piece of water, which was one of the chief ornaments of the garden, they dressed themselves, and re-entered the palace by the secret door, all except Masoud, who climbed up his tree, and got over the garden wall as he had come in.

I'm not sure what to think of this one. The way in which he glosses over the sex is kind of hilarious. He freely inserts new material not in the original for the sake of a better story, and the syntax is weird [piece of water?

They came to a fountain where they took off their clothes and the women sat with the men. I think this is the best version, and it's my personal recommendation.

The English is clear and readable, there are annotations, not nearly to the extent of Burton, but they are there and help, and the language has been optimised to sound good to the ear.

And finally, the partial translation by N. Dawood, also from Penguin Classics: While Shahzaman sat at one of the windows overlooking the King's garden, he saw a door open in the palace, through which came twenty slave-girls and twenty Negroes.

In their midst was his brother's queen, a woman of surpassing beauty. They made their way to the fountain, where they all undressed and sat on the grass.

The King's wife then called out: So also did the Negroes with the slave-girls, revelling together till the approach of night. Another good and fun one.

It's only a partial translation, a little over pages, but considering the quality, I don't mind that much. It's not censored, but as with most of the translations, handles the sexual and racial content in such a way that the reader knows they exist, but does not descend into caricature or racism.

View all 24 comments. Aug 26, Madeline rated it liked it Shelves: I am planning to read through this whole book someday, I swear.

But it's going to be a slow process. Here, in list form, are the reasons I may or may not finish The Arabian Nights.

Since her father is the king's vizier, she gets exempted from said batshit crazy king's plan to marry and then kill every single available virgin in the city.

But she I am planning to read through this whole book someday, I swear. But she volunteers for the job anyway, based purely on her plan to keep telling the king stories until he decides she's much too interesting to kill.

She starts a story in which a man with some unsolvable problem attempts to solve it. He meets three other men. They then meet a djin.

The men all tell stories to the djin. The djin tells stories. They tell a story in which a person meets another person, and tells them stories.

The whole book is like some kind of reverse Jenga game: There's lots of orgies and naked slave girls running around, and since Scheherazade's sister sleeps in her bedroom and is there when the king visits her every night, I got the sense that there were some kinky three-ways going on before Story Time started.

Not only that, most of the cheating women and it is always the women who sleep around in the book are found ravenously sexing up black men.

It's at this point that we break for a lovely footnote by the translator that explains how black men, owing to their insanely massive genitalia, are the paramour of choice for cheating wives.

He adds that several men he knows will not allow their wives to visit Africa with them, since the danger of their being seduced by a well-hung Negro is just too high.

I am not making any of this up. Did I mention that already? View all 13 comments. This edition is a translation of the first nights from the " Nights" cycle.

One of my favorite aspects of this work is the role of Shahrazad. While many people discuss that she is telling the stories to save her own life, what people fail to recognize many times is that, really, she volunteers to be placed in the position in order to save her kingdom.

She's a great literary heroine--saving the world through storytelling. It also provides a great lens into a world that today is depicted i This edition is a translation of the first nights from the " Nights" cycle.

It also provides a great lens into a world that today is depicted in US media as a wartorn hotbed for terrorist activity.

For me it was a reminder that Bagdhad used to be a beautiful, opulent city and cultural center. Anyone with an interest in storytelling, folklore, or the culture of Persia and the Arabian world should check out this work.

Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".

Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds".

This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.

A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.

Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis.

A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.

The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.

The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure.

In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.

Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight.

Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.

In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causation.

In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis , [61] alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.

Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story".

This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole.

Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story.

In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common".

This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights and earlier. Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.

In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.

The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with human penis size.

The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds back by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.

An example of the murder mystery [67] and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists [68] and detective fiction elements [69] was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula "The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman" , [70] one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights.

In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman. Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed.

At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer.

As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.

Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan.

Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.

The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple.

The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.

This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him.

The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.

Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature.

Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town. The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him.

The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H. As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the Nights.

Several stories within the One Thousand and One Nights feature early science fiction elements. One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction; [76] along the way, he encounters societies of djinn , [77] mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life.

In another Nights tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist.

Other Arabian Nights tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them.

Characters occasionally provide poetry in certain settings, covering many uses. However, pleading, beseeching and praising the powerful is the most significant.

In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night , Prince Qamar Al-Zaman, [85] standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival.

He wraps his ring in a paper and hands it to the servant who delivers it to the Queen. When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem Arabic: And I have regretted the separation of our companionship:: An eon, and tears flooded my eyes And I've sworn if time brought us back together:: I'll never utter any separation with my tongue Joy conquered me to the point of:: You cry out of joy and out of sadness.

Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain.

Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain. The influence of the versions of The Nights on world literature is immense.

Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works.

Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A. Byatt and Angela Carter. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin , Sinbad and Ali Baba.

Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge. The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places.

Several elements from Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.

In , the International Astronomical Union IAU began naming features on Saturn 's moon Enceladus after characters and places in Burton 's translation [89] because "its surface is so strange and mysterious that it was given the Arabian Nights as a name bank, linking fantasy landscape with a literary fantasy".

There is little evidence that the Nights was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few preth-century manuscripts of the collection exist.

According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the Nights is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world.

Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written. Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in , it is possible that the Nights began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier.

The modern fame of the Nights derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland, which appeared in According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the Nights.

This fashion began with the publication of Madame d'Aulnoy 's Histoire d'Hypolite in D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the Nights , with the tales told by a female narrator.

At the same time, some French writers began to parody the style and concoct far-fetched stories in superficially Oriental settings.

They often contained veiled allusions to contemporary French society. The most famous example is Voltaire 's Zadig , an attack on religious bigotry set against a vague pre-Islamic Middle Eastern background.

The Polish nobleman Jan Potocki 's novel Saragossa Manuscript begun owes a deep debt to the Nights with its Oriental flavour and labyrinthine series of embedded tales.

The work was included on a price-list of books on theology, history, and cartography, which was sent by the Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar when an apprentice to a Presbyterian minister.

This is illustrative of the title's widespread popularity and availability in the s. The Nights continued to be a favourite book of many British authors of the Romantic and Victorian eras.

Byatt , "In British Romantic poetry the Arabian Nights stood for the wonderful against the mundane, the imaginative against the prosaically and reductively rational.

Wordsworth and Tennyson also wrote about their childhood reading of the tales in their poetry. It depicts the eighth and final voyage of Sinbad the Sailor , along with the various mysteries Sinbad and his crew encounter; the anomalies are then described as footnotes to the story.

While the king is uncertain—except in the case of the elephants carrying the world on the back of the turtle—that these mysteries are real, they are actual modern events that occurred in various places during, or before, Poe's lifetime.

The story ends with the king in such disgust at the tale Scheherazade has just woven, that he has her executed the very next day.

Another important literary figure, the Irish poet W. Yeats was also fascinated by the Arabian Nights, when he wrote in his prose book, A Vision an autobiographical poem, titled The Gift of Harun Al-Rashid , [] in relation to his joint experiments with his wife Georgie Hyde-Lees , with Automatic writing.

The automatic writing, is a technique used by many occultists in order to discern messages from the subconscious mind or from other spiritual beings, when the hand moves a pencil or a pen, writing only on a simple sheet of paper and when the person's eyes are shut.

Also, the gifted and talented wife, is playing in Yeats's poem as "a gift" herself, given only allegedly by the caliph to the Christian and Byzantine philosopher Qusta Ibn Luqa , who acts in the poem as a personification of W.

In July he was asked by Louis Lambert, while in a tour in the United States, which six books satisfied him most. The list that he gave placed the Arabian Nights, secondary only to William Shakespeare's works.

The critic Robert Irwin singles out the two versions of The Thief of Baghdad version directed by Raoul Walsh; version produced by Alexander Korda and Pier Paolo Pasolini 's Il fiore delle Mille e una notte , as ranking "high among the masterpieces of world cinema.

UPA , an American animation studio, produced an animated feature version of Arabian Nights , featuring the cartoon character Mr. The animated feature film, One Thousand and One Arabian Nights , produced in Japan and directed by Osamu Tezuka and Eichii Yamamoto, featured psychedelic imagery and sounds, and erotic material intended for adults.

Shabnam Rezaei and Aly Jetha created, and the Vancouver-based Big Bad Boo Studios produced Nights , an animated television series for children, which launched on Teletoon and airs in 80 countries around the world, including Discovery Kids Asia.

Arabian Nights , in Portuguese: Popular modern video games with an Arabian Nights theme include Nadirim , a game placed in a fantasy world inspired by the tales of the Nights, [] Disney's Aladdin , Prince of Persia and Sonic and the Secret Rings , and Bookworm Adventures.

Many artists have illustrated the Arabian nights , including: Famous illustrators for British editions include: Others artists include John D.

Heath Robinson and Arthur Szyk Harun ar-Rashid , a leading character of the Nights. William Harvey , The Story of the Fisherman , —40, woodcut.

Friedrich Gross , ante , woodcut. Frank Brangwyn , Story of Abon-Hassan the Wag "He found himself upon the royal couch" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.

Frank Brangwyn , Story of the Merchant "Sheherezade telling the stories" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard. Frank Brangwyn , Story of Ansal-Wajooodaud, Rose-in-Bloom "The daughter of a Visier sat at a lattice window" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.

Frank Brangwyn , Story of Gulnare "The merchant uncovered her face" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.

Frank Brangwyn , Story of Beder Basim "Whereupon it became eared corn" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard. Frank Brangwyn , Story of Abdalla "Abdalla of the sea sat in the water, near the shore" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.

Frank Brangwyn , Story of Mahomed Ali "He sat his boat afloat with them" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard. Frank Brangwyn , Story of the City of Brass "They ceased not to ascend by that ladder" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Arabian Nights disambiguation. For other uses, see One Thousand and One Nights disambiguation.

Translations of One Thousand and One Nights. Encyclopaedia of Islam 3rd ed. The Arabian Nights in Transnational Perspective. Wayne State University Press.

Lyons and Ursula Lyons Penguin Classics, , vol. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. A Companion , Tauris Parke Paperbacks , p.

The Nandakaprakarana attributed to Vasubhaga, a Comparative Study. University of Toronto Thesis. Les entretiensde Nang Tantrai. The art of storytelling, Volume VI.

However, it remains far from clear what the connection is between this fragment of the early text and the Nights stories as they have survived in later and fuller manuscripts; nor how the Syrian manuscripts related to later Egyptian versions.

Al-Rabita Press, Baghdad, Islamic Review , Dec , pp.

Aparate Arabian Nights -

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This collection then formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights. The original core of stories was quite small.

Then, in Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it—among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.

Also, perhaps from the 10th century onwards, previously independent sagas and story cycles were added to the compilation [ In the early modern period yet more stories were added to the Egyptian collections so as to swell the bulk of the text sufficiently to bring its length up to the full 1, nights of storytelling promised by the book's title.

Devices found in Sanskrit literature such as frame stories and animal fables are seen by some scholars as lying at the root of the conception of the Nights.

The influence of the Panchatantra and Baital Pachisi is particularly notable. It is possible that the influence of the Panchatantra is via a Sanskrit adaptation called the Tantropakhyana.

Only fragments of the original Sanskrit form of this work exist, but translations or adaptations exist in Tamil, [14] Lao, [15] Thai [16] and Old Javanese.

In the 10th century Ibn al-Nadim compiled a catalogue of books the "Fihrist" in Baghdad. He noted that the Sassanid kings of Iran enjoyed "evening tales and fables".

He also writes disparagingly of the collection's literary quality, observing that "it is truly a coarse book, without warmth in the telling".

In the s, the Iraqi scholar Safa Khulusi suggested on internal rather than historical evidence that the Persian writer Ibn al-Muqaffa' may have been responsible for the first Arabic translation of the frame story and some of the Persian stories later incorporated into the Nights.

This would place genesis of the collection in the 8th century. In the midth century, the scholar Nabia Abbott found a document with a few lines of an Arabic work with the title The Book of the Tale of a Thousand Nights , dating from the 9th century.

This is the earliest known surviving fragment of the Nights. Some of the earlier Persian tales may have survived within the Arabic tradition altered such that Arabic Muslim names and new locations were substituted for pre-Islamic Persian ones, but it is also clear that whole cycles of Arabic tales were eventually added to the collection and apparently replaced most of the Persian materials.

One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid died , his vizier Jafar al-Barmaki d.

Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales.

It is represented in print by the so-called Calcutta I — and most notably by the Leiden edition , which is based above all on the Galland manuscript.

It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval Arabian Nights. Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written, [37] and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of nights.

The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recension , does contain nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the Bulaq and the Macnaghten or Calcutta II — All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core.

It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.

He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo , a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna Diab. As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version".

The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane , , were bowdlerized. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night , which were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip " and a "highly personal reworking of the text".

Later versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J. Mardrus , issued from to It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy.

Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one a view that is largely accepted today and that it reflects most closely a "definitive" coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period a view that remains contentious.

In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin.

It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland 's original French.

As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "109o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts.

In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights: The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions.

An early example of the frame story , or framing device , is employed in the One Thousand and One Nights , in which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights.

Many of Scheherazade's tales are also frame stories, such as the Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman.

An early example of the " story within a story " technique can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights , which can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.

The Nights , however, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced. In the Panchatantra , stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.

The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories.

Within the "Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter.

In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, " The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.

Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience".

This technique dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny.

The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale.

By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality.

The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.

Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".

Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds".

This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.

A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.

Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis.

A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.

The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.

The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.

Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight.

Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.

In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place.

This is an early example of reverse causation. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis , [61] alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.

Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story".

This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole.

Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story.

In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common".

This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights and earlier. Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.

In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.

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Arabian Nights Aparate -

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